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Batman Returns (1992) is an American action movie directed by Tim Burton. Based on the DC Comics character Batman, it is the sequel to Burton's Batman (1989), and features Michael Keaton reprising the title role, with Danny DeVito as the Penguin and Michelle Pfeiffer as Catwoman.

Burton originally did not want to direct a sequel because of his mixed emotions toward the previous film. Daniel Waters delivered a script that satisfied Burton; Wesley Strick did an uncredited rewrite, deleting the character of Robin and rewriting the climax. Filming started at Burbank, California in June 1991. Batman Returns was released to financial and critical success, though it caused some controversy for being darker than its predecessor.

Plot Edit

A hideously deformed baby boy is born to a wealthy aristocratic couple, who after a short-lived attempt to cope with their child's unnatural deformity, decide to dispose of the infant into the sewers beneath the Gotham Zoo, where he is found and raised by a group of penguins. Thirty-three years later, business tycoon Max Shreck (Christopher Walken) proposes to build a new power-plant to save Gotham City from a possible power failure in the future, although the Mayor and other city officials question Shreck's motives. Meanwhile, during a public speech from Shreck, a group of rogue circus clowns known as the Red Triangle Gang disrupts the gathering and takes Shreck into the sewers. He is then introduced to the legendary Penguin (Danny DeVito), the deformed boy, now an adult, who blackmails Shreck with incriminating evidence of past crimes into helping him emerge from the sewers to become a public hero. Shreck accepts, planning to use the penguin-man to his own advantage.

Meanwhile, Shreck discovers that his secretary, Selina Kyle (Michelle Pfeiffer), has learned the true nature of his proposed power plant: it will drain and store the power of Gotham City and make a huge profit for the Shreck family. Shreck attempts to kill Selina by pushing her out of the window of the office, but she survives the fall, though unconscious. Mysteriously revived by alley cats, she takes up the mantle of Catwoman, dedicating her life to feminism in an exceedingly aggressive manner. The Penguin, with the help of a Red Triangle acrobat, stages a kidnapping of the Mayor's infant son into the sewers, where the child is subsequently "rescued" by the Penguin. Now a media sensation, Penguin is granted private access into the Hall of Records to discover his parents' identity and learn his real name: Oswald Chesterfield Cobblepot. He publicly forgives his now-deceased parents for abandoning him, and wins the sympathy of the public, except for Bruce Wayne (Michael Keaton), who is skeptical of Penguin's heroics and eventually links Cobblepot to several child disappearances over the past few years. Bruce soon realizes that Cobblepot is the leader of the Red Triangle gang and attempts to confront Shreck with his suspicions during an intended business meeting. However, Shreck, who is in on Cobblepot's plans, takes offense at Bruce's accusations, and bluntly dismisses Bruce from his office. Shortly thereafter, Shreck hatches a plan with Cobblepot that would exploit the gang's past crimes to defame the Mayor and propose a recall election, making Cobblepot the ideal replacement candidate. During the next attack by the Red Triangle gang, Catwoman runs into Batman and the Penguin, after having destroyed a part of Shreck's department store. Batman pursues her atop a building, and the two fight. Catwoman overcomes Batman and casually threatens his life while dangling him off a high ledge with her whip. During this opportune moment, Batman attacks her with a concealed chemical vial from his utility belt and pushes her off the building, where she lands safely but coincidently in a Kitty Litter-filled truck bed leaving the area.

Catwoman joins forces with the Penguin to devise a plan to frame Batman and destroy him; at the same time, Selina begins a romantic relationship with Bruce Wayne. While Bruce and Selina are together at Wayne manor, an unexpected news bulletin catches their attention in which the beautiful holiday Ice Princess (Cristi Conaway), is abducted, with Batman as the main suspect. Both Selina and Bruce abruptly cancel their evening plans and part ways, unaware that they're both going to the same destination. Bruce, as Batman, heads to rescue the Princess and clear his name, but is met with both the Penguin and Catwoman. The confrontation on the building rooftop ends with the Penguin killing the princess, and the public below believing Batman was responsible. When Batman tries to escape, he discovers that the Batmobile has been sabotaged and that the Penguin has remote control over its operation. During the destructive rampage throughout the city while trying to evade the police, Batman pinpoints the remote transmitter overriding the Batmobile and removes it, all the while recording Cobblepot's callous remarks about the city and the naiveté of its people. Batman narrowly escapes the police and returns to Wayne Manor with the Batmobile nearly destroyed. Penguin seeks to celebrate his victory with Catwoman, but the alliance soon ends when she rebuffs a sexual advance from him, which leads to Penguin dropping her into a Greenhouse below to leave her for dead.

The following day, Bruce Wayne uses his radio machinery at the Batcave, to interrupt Cobblepot's campaign speech and play back the harsh, subversive statements made about Gotham, revealing Cobblepot's treachery. After hearing the recording, the crowd heckles and condemns Cobblepot forcing him to retreat to the sewers after Shreck also abandons him. Enraged, Cobblepot reverts to his master plan: to abduct and murder all the first-born sons of Gotham City using information he acquired from the Hall of Records. At a ball hosted by Shreck in which Bruce and Selina meet and accidentally discover their dual identities, the Penguin makes an explosive entrance and announces his plan, with Shreck's son, Chip, to be the first victim. Shreck insists on being taken instead, and the Penguin reluctantly agrees. In the mean time, Batman stops the Penguin's men from kidnapping the children and learns of the Penguin's sewer hideout. Angered at being foiled once again, the Penguin plans now to instead destroy Gotham completely using his penguins to fire missiles into the heart of the city, but Batman, with help from his butler Alfred (Michael Gough), jams the penguins' communicators and makes them return to the sewers.

The Penguin attempts to flee from the sewer through the zoo, but Batman catches up with him and they fight until Batman tricks him into firing all the penguins' missiles at the abandoned zoo. In the fray, the Penguin is attacked by bats that were hidden inside Batman's watercraft and falls through the glass ceiling, plummeting into the toxic waste filled moat which he planned to drown Gotham's children in. Shreck, meanwhile, escapes but is ambushed by Catwoman. Batman intervenes by removing his mask to talk Catwoman out of her desire for vengeance, but although she claims that she loves him, she refuses to listen. Shreck pulls out a gun and shoots Batman, then shoots Catwoman, but continues to shoot at her three more times since she does not fall from the wounds. Claiming she has two lives left, she ignites an electrical surge that kills Shreck and destroys the giant air-conditioning/cooling system within the lair. Batman, who was wearing body armor, tries to find Selina's body but only finds Max Shreck's charred corpse. A dying Penguin emerges from the toxic sludge and tries to shoot Batman from behind, but picks up the wrong umbrella. With his last few breaths he declares that he thirsts for some ice water, then collapses and dies. Six large emperor penguins gather around him to form what seems like a funeral procession, pushing his body into the water.

On the way back home, Bruce sees Catwoman's shadow in an alley and looks for her, but only finds her cat. He subsequently takes the cat home with him, wishing Alfred a Merry Christmas. In the distance, the Bat-Signal lights up in the night sky and Catwoman's silhouette is seen proudly glaring up towards the glowing emblem, as if to taunt Batman once again.

Cast Edit

  • Michael Keaton as Bruce Wayne / Batman. After ending The Joker's reign of terror, Batman continues his quest as Gotham City's sole protector, in his wake he meets Selina Kyle, and clashes with new anti-heroine Catwoman. His situation becomes complicated due to the arrival of a mysterious "Penguin-like Man" spotted throughout Gotham.
  • Danny DeVito as Oswald Cobblepot / The Penguin . Abandoned at birth due to his hideous appearance by his aristocratic parents, he spends his life living in the sewers of Gotham City. His real intentions are to dispose of every first born son in Gotham City out of vengeance against his parents for abandoning him as a child.
  • Michelle Pfeiffer as Selina Kyle / Catwoman. Formerly a quiet and shy secretary for Max Shreck, Selina transforms into Catwoman after an attempt on her life. She becomes a romantic interest for Bruce Wayne and a deadly adversary for Batman. She has nine lives, manifesting as a supernatural ability to live through mortal injuries eight times.
  • Christopher Walken as Max Shreck: A powerful business mogul who serves as the boss of Selina Kyle and unusual ally to the Penguin.
  • Michael Gough as Alfred Pennyworth: Bruce Wayne's faithful butler.
  • Pat Hingle as Commissioner Gordon: Police Commissioner of Gotham City.
  • Michael Murphy as The Mayor: Gotham's unpopular Mayor whose position is challenged by the Penguin at the urging of Max Shreck.
  • Vincent Schiavelli as The Organ Grinder: Head of The Penguin's Red Triangle Circus Gang.
  • Andrew Bryniarski as Chip Shreck: Max Shreck's son and right-hand man.
  • Cristi Conaway as The Ice Princess: A beauty queen who is kidnapped and eventually killed by the Penguin.
  • Jan Hooks as Jen: Image Consultant to Max Shreck
  • Steve Witting as Josh: Image Consultant to Max Shreck
  • Paul Reubens as Tucker Cobblepot: The Penguin's Father
  • Diane Salinger as Esther Cobblepot: The Penguin's Mother.
  • Anna Katarina as Poodle Lady: Red Triangle Circus Gang member.
  • John Strong as Sword Swallower: Red Triangle Circus Gang member.
  • Rick Zumwalt as Tattooed Strongman: Red Triangle Circus Gang member.

Production Edit

Development Edit

After the success of Batman, Warner Bros. was hoping for a sequel to start filming in May 1990 at Pinewood Studios. They spent $250,000 storing the sets from the first film. Tim Burton had mixed emotions from the previous film. "I will return if the sequel offers something new and exciting," he said in 1989. "Otherwise it's a most-dumbfounded idea."[1] Burton decided to direct Edward Scissorhands for 20th Century Fox. Meanwhile, Sam Hamm from the previous film delivered the first two drafts of the script, while Bob Kane was brought back as a creative consultant.[2] Hamm's script had Penguin and Catwoman going after hidden treasure.[3]

Burton was impressed with Daniel Waters' work on Heathers; Burton originally brought Waters aboard on a sequel to Beetlejuice. Warner Bros. then granted Burton a large amount of creative control, demoting producers Jon Peters and Peter Guber to executive producers. Dissatisfied with the Hamm script, Burton commissioned a rewrite from Waters.[2][4][5] Waters "came up with a social satire that had an evil mogul backing a bid for the Mayor's office by the Penguin," Waters reported. "I wanted to show that the true villains of our world don't necessarily wear costumes."[3] The plot device of Penguin running for Mayor came from the 1960s TV series episodes "Hizzoner the Penguin" and "Dizzoner the Penguin".[3] Waters wrote a total of five drafts.[5]

On the characterization of Catwoman, Waters explained "Sam Hamm went back to the way comic books in general treat women, like fetishy sexual fantasy. I wanted to start off just at the lowest point in society, a very beaten down secretary."[4] Harvey Dent appeared in early drafts of the script, but was deleted. Waters quoted, "Sam Hamm definitely planned that. I flirted with it, having Harvey start to come back and have one scene of him where he flips a coin and it's the good side of the coin, deciding not to do anything, so you had to wait for the next movie."[4] In early scripts Max Shreck was the "golden boy" of the Cobblepot family, whereas Penguin was the deformed outsider. It turned out that Shreck would be the Penguin's long-lost brother.[6] Max Shreck was also a reference to actor Max Schreck, known for his role as Count Orlok in Nosferatu.[5]

Burton hired Wesley Strick to do an uncredited rewrite. Strick recalled, "When I was hired to write Batman Returns (Batman II at the time), the big problem of the script was Penguin's lack of a 'master plan'."[7] Warner Bros. presented Strick with warming or freezing Gotham City (later to be used in Batman & Robin). Strick gained inspiration from a Moses parallel that had Penguin killing the firstborn sons of Gotham. A similar notion was used when the Penguin's parents threw him into a river as a baby.[7] Robin appeared in the script, but was deleted due to too many characters. Waters feels Robin is "the most worthless character in the world, especially with [Batman as] the loner of loners." Robin started out as a juvenile gang leader, who becomes an ally to Batman. Robin was later changed to a black teenager who's also a garage mechanic.[4] Waters explained, "He's wearing this old-fashioned garage mechanic uniform and it has an 'R' on it. He drives the Batmobile, which I notice they used in the third film!"[4] Marlon Wayans was cast, and signed for a sequel. Wayans had attended a wardrobe fitting, but it was decided to save the character for a third installment.[8]

Michael Keaton returned after a significant increase in his salary at $10 million. Annette Bening was cast as Catwoman after Burton saw her performance in The Grifters, but dropped out due to pregnancy.[3][9] Raquel Welch, Jennifer Jason Leigh, Lena Olin, Ellen Barkin, Cher, Bridget Fonda and Susan Sarandon were then in competition for the role.[2][10] Sean Young, who was originally cast as Vicki Vale in the first film, believed the role should have gone to her. Young visited production offices dressed in a homemade Catwoman costume, demanding an audition. Burton was unfamiliar with Michelle Pfeiffer's work, but was convinced to cast her after one meeting..[11] Pfeiffer received a $3 million salary ($2 million more than Bening) and a percentage of the box office.[3] Pfeiffer took kickboxing lessons for the role.[12] Kathy Long served as Pfeiffer's body double. On Danny DeVito's casting, Waters explained, "I kind of knew that DeVito was going to play The Penguin. We didn't really officially cast it, but for a short nasty little guy, it's a short list. I ended up writing the character for Danny DeVito."[4]

Filming Edit

In early-1991, two of Hollywood's largest sound stages (Stage 16 at Warner Bros. and Stage 12 at Universal Studios) were being prepared for the filming of Batman Returns.[3] Filming started in June 1991.[11] Stage 16 held Gotham Plaza, based on Rockefeller Center. Universal's Stage 12 housed Penguin's underground lair. A half-a-million gallon tank filled with water was used.[3] Burton wanted to make sure that the penguins felt comfortable.[11] Eight other locations on the Warner Bros. lot were used, over 50% of their property was occupied by Gotham City sets.[3]

Animal rights groups started protesting the film after finding out that penguins would have rockets strapped on their backs. Richard Hill, the curator of the penguins explained that Warner Bros. was very helpful in making sure the penguins were comfortable.[13] "On the flight over the plane was refrigerated down to 45 degrees," recalls Hill. "In Hollywood, they were given a refrigerated trailer, their own swimming pool, half-a-ton of ice each day, and they had fresh fish delivered daily straight from the docks. Even though it was 100 degrees outside, the entire set was refrigerated down to 35 degrees."[13]

Warner Bros. devoted a large amount of secrecy for Batman Returns. The art department was required to keep their office blinds pulled down. Cast and crew had to have photo ID badges with the movie's fake working title Dictel to go anywhere near the sets.[14] Kevin Costner was refused a chance to visit the set. An entertainment magazine leaked the first photos of Danny DeVito as the Penguin; in response Warner Bros. employed a private investigator to track down the accomplice.[3] $65 million was spent during the production of Batman Returns, while $15 million was used for marketing, coming to a total cost of $80 million.[15] The final shot of Catwoman looking at the Bat-Signal was completed during post-production and was not part of the shooting script. After Batman Returns was completed Warner Bros. felt it was best for Catwoman to survive, saving more characterizations in a future installment. Pfeiffer was unavailable and a body double was chosen.[2]

Danny Elfman had great enthusiasm for returning because "I didn't have to prove myself from the first film. I remember Jon Peters was very skeptical at first to hire me."[16] Elfman's work schedule was 12 hours a day, 7 days a week. "When completing this movie I realized it was something of a film score and an opera. It was 95 minutes long, twice the amount of the average of film score."[16] Elfman co-orchestrated Face to Face, which was written and performed by Siouxsie and the Banshees. The song can be heard in one scene during the film and during the end credits.[16]

Design and effects Edit

Bo Welch, Burton's collaborator on Beetlejuice and Edward Scissorhands, replaced Anton Furst as production designer. Welch blended "Fascist architecture with World's Fair architecture" for Gotham City.[17] Russian architecture and German Expressionism were also studied. An iron maiden was used for Bruce Wayne's entry into the batcave.[18] Stan Winston, who worked with Burton on Edward Scissorhands, designed Danny DeVito's prosthetic makeup, which took two hours to apply.[15] The Penguin's design was based on the titular character of the German Expressionist silent film The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari, similar to how the silent film's Somnambulist was referenced for Edward Scissorhands. DeVito put a combination of mouthwash and red/green food coloring in his mouth "to create a grotesque texture of some weird ooze."[19]

More than 60 Catsuits were designed in the six-month shoot at $1,000 each.[20] The Batsuit was updated, which was made out of a thinner, slightly more flexible foam rubber material than the suit from Batman. DeVito was uncomfortable with his costume, but this made it easy for him to get into character. J. P. Morgan's wardrobe was used for inspiration on Max Shreck's costume design.[21]

The bats were entirely composed of computer-generated imagery since it was decided directing real bats on set would be problematic.[3] The Penguin's "bird army" was a combination of CGI, robotic creatures, men in suits and even real penguins.[11] Robotic penguin puppets were commissioned by Stan Winston. In total 30 African Penguins and 12 King Penguins were used.[22] A miniature effect was used for the exteriors of the Cobblepot Mansion in the opening scene and for Wayne Manor. The same method was used for the The Bat Ski-boat.[23]

Reception Edit

Reaction Edit

Batman Returns was released in America on June 19, 1992, earning $45.69 million in 2,644 theaters on its opening weekend.[24] This was the highest opening weekend in 1992.[25] The film went on to gross $162.83 million in North America, and $104 million in foreign countries, coming to a worldwide total of $266.83 million.[24] Batman Returns was the third highest grossing film in America of 1992,[25] and sixth highest in worldwide totals.[26] The film was declared a financial success, but Warner Bros. felt the film should have been more successful. A "parental backlash" criticized Batman Returns with violence and sexual references that were unsuitable for children. McDonald's shut down their Happy Meal tie-in for the film.[27] Burton responded, "I like Batman Returns better than the first one. There was this big backlash that it was too dark, but I found this movie much less dark."[11]

Based on 44 reviews collected by Rotten Tomatoes, 77% of reviewers enjoyed the film.[28]

Janet Maslin in the New York Times thought that "Mr. Burton creates a wicked world of misfits, all of them rendered with the mixture of horror, sympathy and playfulness that has become this director's hallmark." She described Michael Keaton as showing "appropriate earnestness," Danny Devito as "conveying verve," Christopher Walken as "wonderfully debonair," Michelle Pfeiffer as "captivating... fierce, seductive," Bo Welch's production design as "dazzling," Stefan Czapsky's cinematography as "crisp," and Daniel Waters's screenplay as "sharp."[29]

Peter Travers in Rolling Stone wrote: "Burton uses the summer's most explosively entertaining movie to lead us back into the liberating darkness of dreams." He praised the performances: "Pfeiffer gives this feminist avenger a tough core of intelligence and wit; she's a classic dazzler... Michael Keaton's manic-depressive hero remains a remarkably rich creation. And Danny DeVito's mutant Penguin - a balloon-bellied Richard III with a kingdom of sewer freaks - is as hilariously warped as Jack Nicholson's Joker and even quicker with the quips."[30]

Desson Howe in the Washington Post wrote: "Director Burton not only re-creates his one-of-a-kind atmosphere, he one-ups it, even two-ups it. He's best at evoking the psycho-murky worlds in which his characters reside. The Penguin holds court in a penguin-crowded, Phantom of the Opera-like sewer home. Keaton hides in a castlelike mansion, which perfectly mirrors its owner's inner remoteness. Comic strip purists will probably never be happy with a Batman movie. But Returns comes closer than ever to Bob Kane's dark, original strip, which began in 1939." He described Walken as "engaging," DeVito as "exquisite" and Pfeiffer as "deliciously purry."[31]

Todd McCarthy in Variety wrote that "the real accomplishment of the film lies in the amazing physical realization of an imaginative universe. Where Burton's ideas end and those of his collaborators begin is impossible to know, but the result is a seamless, utterly consistent universe full of nasty notions about societal deterioration, greed and other base impulses." He praised the contributions of Stan Winston, Danny Elfman, Bo Welch and cinematographer Stefan Czapsky, and in terms of performances, opined that "the deck is stacked entirely in favor of the villains," calling DeVito "fascinating" and Pfeiffer "very tasty."[32]

Roger Ebert in the Chicago Sun-Times wrote: "I give the movie a negative review, and yet I don't think it's a bad movie; it's more misguided, made with great creativity, but denying us what we more or less deserve from a Batman story. No matter how hard you try, superheroes and film noir don't go together; the very essence of noir is that there are no more heroes." He compared the Penguin negatively with the Joker of the first film, writing that "the Penguin is a curiously meager and depressing creature; I pitied him, but did not fear him or find him funny. The genius of Danny DeVito is all but swallowed up in the paraphernalia of the role. Batman Returns is odd and sad, but not exhilarating."[33]

Jonathan Rosenbaum called DeVito "a pale substitute for Jack Nicholson from the first film" and felt that "there's no suspense in Batman Returns whatsoever".[34] Batman comic book writer/artist Matt Wagner was quoted as saying: "I hated how Batman Returns made Batman little more than just another costumed creep, little better than the villains he’s pursuing. Additionally, Burton is so blatantly not an action director. That aspect of both his films just sucked."[35]

Awards and nominations Edit

Batman Returns was nominated for two Academy Awards in the categories of Best Visual Effects and Best Makeup.[36] It was also nominated for two British Academy Film Awards (BAFTAs) in the same categories,[37] and the Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation.[38]

Stan Winston and Ve Neill won the Saturn Award for Best Make-up, and the film was nominated in a further four categories: Best Fantasy Film, Best Director (Tim Burton), Best Supporting Actor (Danny DeVito) and Best Costumes.[39]

Danny Elfman won the BMI Film Music Award.[40]

At the MTV Movie Awards 1993, the film was nominated in three categories: Best Kiss (Michael Keaton and Michelle Pfeiffer), Best Villain (Danny DeVito) and Most Desirable Female (Michelle Pfeiffer). Danny DeVito was also nominated for the Golden Raspberry Award (Razzie) for Worst Supporting Actor.[41]

Awarding Body Award Nominee Result
Academy Awards Best Visual Effects Michael L. Fink, Craig Barron, John Bruno, Dennis Skotak nomination
Best Makeup Ve Neill, Ronnie Specter, Stan Winston nomination
British Academy Film Awards (BAFTAs) Best Makeup Artist Ve Neill, Stan Winston nomination
Best Special Effects Michael L. Fink, Craig Barron, John Bruno, Dennis Skotak nomination
BMI Film & TV Awards BMI Film Music Award Danny Elfman winner
Golden Raspberry Awards (Razzies) Worst Supporting Actor Danny DeVito nomination
Hugo Awards Best Dramatic Presentation nomination
MTV Movie Awards Best Kiss Michael Keaton, Michelle Pfeiffer nomination
Best Villain Danny DeVito nomination
Most Desirable Female Michelle Pfeiffer nomination
Saturn Awards Best Fantasy Film nomination
Best Director Tim Burton nomination
Best Supporting Actor Danny DeVito nomination
Best Make-Up Stan Winston, Ve Neill winner
Best Costumes Bob Ringwood, Mary E. Vogt, Vin Burnham nomination

Legacy Edit

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Batman Returns would be the last film in the Batman film series that featured Tim Burton and Michael Keaton as director and leading actor, respectively. With Batman Forever, Warner Bros. decided to go in a "lighter" direction to be more mainstream in the process of a family film. Burton had no interest in returning to direct a sequel, but he did serve as a producer.[42] With Warner Bros. moving on development for Batman Forever in June 1993, a Catwoman spin-off was announced. Michelle Pfeiffer was to reprise her role, with the character not to appear in Forever because of "her own little movie".[43]

Burton became attached as director, while producer Denise Di Novi and writer Daniel Waters also returned to the Catwoman spin-off with Burton.[44] In January 1994, Burton was unsure of his plans to direct Catwoman or an adaptation of The Fall of the House of Usher.[45] On June 6, 1995, Waters turned in his Catwoman script to Warner Bros., the same day Batman Forever was released. Burton was still being courted to direct. Waters joked, "turning it in the day Batman Forever opened may not have been my best logistical move, in that it's the celebration of the fun-for-the-whole-family Batman. Catwoman is definitely not a fun-for-the-whole-family script."[4] The film labored in development hell for years, with Pfeiffer getting replaced by Ashley Judd. The film ended up becoming the critically-panned Catwoman (2004) starring Halle Berry.[46][47]

The idea of Penguin taking over the Batmobile was later used in the episode "The Mechanic" of Batman: The Animated Series.

AppearancesEdit

IndividualsEdit

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References Edit

  1. Alan Jones (November 1989). "Batman in Production", Cinefantastique, pp. 75—88. Retrieved on 2008-08-14.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Tim Burton, Sam Hamm, Denise Di Novi, Daniel Waters, Shadows of the Bat: The Cinematic Saga of the Dark Knight—The Dark Side of the Knight, 2005, Warner Home Video
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 Jeffrey Resner (August 1992). "Three Go Mad in Gotham", Empire, pp. 39—46. Retrieved on 2008-08-14.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 Judy Sloane (August 1995). "Daniel Waters on Writing", Film Review, pp. 67—69. Retrieved on 2008-08-14.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Template:Cite book
  6. Daniel Waters, Alex Ross, Batman Returns: Villains, 2005, Warner Home Video
  7. 7.0 7.1 Template:Cite book
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  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 Template:Cite book
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  13. 13.0 13.1 Owain Yolland (August 1992). "Two minutes, Mr Penguin", Empire, pp. 89—90. Retrieved on 2008-08-14.
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  15. 15.0 15.1 Brian D. Johnson (1992-06-22). "Batman's Return", Maclean's. Retrieved on 2008-08-14.
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 Danny Elfman, Inside the Elfman Studios: The Music of Batman Returns, 2005, Warner Home Video
  17. Judy Sloane (August 1995). "Bo Welch Interview", Film Review, pp. 66. Retrieved on 2008-08-14.
  18. Bo Welch, Tim Burton, Gotham City Revisited: The Production Design of Batman Returns, 2005, Warner Home Video
  19. Danny DeVito, Stan Winston, Making-Up the Penguin, 2005, Warner Home Video
  20. Tim Fennell (August 1992). "The Catsuit", Empire, pp. 47—49. Retrieved on 2008-08-14.
  21. Bob Ringwood, Michelle Pfeiffer, Sleek, Sexy and Sinister: The Costumes of Batman Returns, 2005, Warner Home Video
  22. Stan Winston, Assembling the Arctic Army, 2005, Warner Home Video
  23. Stan Winston, Mike Fink, Bats, Mattes and Dark Knights: The Visual Effects of Batman Returns, 2005, Warner Home Video
  24. 24.0 24.1 Template:Cite web
  25. 25.0 25.1 Template:Cite web
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  27. Olly Richards (September 1992). "Trouble in Gotham", Empire, pp. 21—23. Retrieved on 2008-08-14.
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  42. Tim Burton, Michael Keaton, Joel Schumacher, Shadows of the Bat: The Cinematic Saga of the Dark Knight—Reinventing a Hero, 2005, Warner Home Video
  43. Template:Cite news
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  47. Template:Cite web

External links Edit

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